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Bonifacio and Katipunan

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 The reform movement of Rizal and other propagandist failed yet more hopeful they could soften the heart demanded.For this reason, it lead by Andres Bonifacio were forced to figth against Spaniards. he founded the Katipunan on the very night that the news of Rizal's deportation to Dapitan leak out. Unlike the members of the middle class, Bonifacio and his plebian associate did not bring of mere reforms. They were interested in liberating the country from tyranny of the Spaniards, and the only way for them to accomplish there was to prepare the people for an armed conflicts. And thus, Katipunan was founded on a radiacal flatform, namely to secure thje independence and freedom of the Philippines by forced of an arms.

Founding of Katipunan - The hearing of the news about Rizal's deportation mark as the beginni9ng of the founding of Katipunan. On the night of July 07, 1892, Andres Bonifacio, Valentine Diaz,  Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Deodato Arelliano and others, met secretly at the house on Azcarraga (now Claro M Recto Avenue) and decided to form an association called 'Katataasang Kagalanggalangan Katipunan ng mga anak ng Bayan' or shortly Katipunan. they used the triangle method to acquire more members in joinong the Katipunan. This method will begin in which the original member would take into new members who didnt know each other but knew  only the original member. Also agreed upon during the meeting was the payment of an entrance fee of one real fuerte (twenty five centavos) and a monthly due of a medio real (twelve centavos).
 
Objectives of Katipunan
 
     Katipunan laid down three fundamental objectives.
          a.) political - consisted in working for the separation of Philippines from Spain
          b.) moral - revolve around the teaching of good manners, hygiene, good morals and attacking obscurantism, religious fanaticisism and weakness of character
         c.) civic - revolve around the principle of self-help and defense of the poor and oppressed
 
     All members were urged to come to the aid of the sick comrades and their families, and in case of death, the society was to pay the funeral expenses
 
Structure of Katipunan
 
     The structure of Katipunan reveals that it was greatly influenced by Masonry as to initiation rites, and by Rizal's La Liga Filipina as to organization. Structurally, the society had 3 governing bodies- the Kataastaasang Sanggunian or Supreme Council, the Sangguniang Bayan or Provincial Council and the Sanggyniang Balanggay or Popular Council. Kataastaasang Sanggunian is the highest governing bodyof society. Sangguniang Bayan and Sangguniang Balanggay represents the province and municipality or town.
 
     Judicial matters affecting the members of the society were referred to as sort of court known as the Sangguniang Hukuman or Judicial Council. During its existence, the Judicial Council had not passed the death sentence on any member. But a secret chamber, composed of Bonifacio, Jacinto, Valenzuela srntenced some members to be expelled for having allegedly violated the secrets of the society.
 
 
Expansion of Katipunan
 
     The distribution of 'Kalayaan' directly influenced the thingking and feeling of the masses in Central Luzon. Jacinto and Bonifacio's writings awakened the people from a long lethargy and swelled the ranks of Katopunan. At the end of March 1896, hundreds of people nightly joined the Katipunan. The people became aware of their rights and duties to their country. From the founding of the society to January 1896, it did not have more than 300 members, but since the appearnce of the 'Kalayaan', the members had increased around 30 000. The people were now prepared to shoulder the risks demanded of them in the struggle for the emancipation of the native land.
 
     Because the triangle method was so slow, Bonifacio decided to change the method of recruiting members which is taking in as many new members as an original member can. By this method, the members reached more than 100.
 
First Supreme Council
     Deodato Arellano- President (Supremo)
     Andres Bonifacio-Interventor or Comptroller
     Ladislao Diwa-Fiscal
     Teodoro Plata-Secretary
     Valentin Diaz-Treasurer
 
Second Supreme Council (February 1893)
     Roman Basa-President
     Andres Bonifacio-Fiscal
     Jose Turiano Santiago-Secretary
               Vicente Molina             
     Briccio Pantas
     Restituto Javier-Councilors
     Teodoro Plata
     Teodoro Gonzales
     Ladislao Diwa
 
Third Supreme Council (1895)
     Andres Bonifacio-Supremo
     Emilio Jacinto-Fiscal
     Jose Turiano Santiago-Secretary
     Vicente Molina-Treasurer
     Pio Valenzuela-Physician
     Pantaleon Torres
     Aguedo del Rosario-Councilors
     Doroteo Trinidad
    
Fourth Supreme Council (December 31, 1895)
     Andres Bonifacio-Supremo
     Pio Valenzuela-Fiscal and Physician
     Emilio Jacinto-Secretary
     Vicente Molina-Treasurer
            Enrique Pacheco       
     Pantaleon Torres
     Balbino Florentino-Councilors
     Francisco Carreon
     Hermenegildo Reyes
 
Last Supreme Council (August 1896)
     Andres Bonifacio-Supremo
     Emilio Jacinto-Secretary of State
     Teodoro Plata-Secretary of War
     Briccio Pantas-Secretary of Justce
     Agueda del Rosario-Secretary of Interior
     Enrique Pacheco-Secretary of Finance
 
 
Kinds of Membership
 
     Upon reaching of more  than a hundred members, Bonifacio divide the members into 3 grades. The first grade was called 'Katipon' and wore a black hood in meetngs. Their password was 'Anak ng Bayan.' The second grade was called 'Kawal'(Soldier) who wore a green hood. The password was 'Gom-Bur-Za 'taken from the three martyrs, Gomez, Burgos and Zamora. The third grade, called 'Bayani'(Patriot) who wore a red mask and sash with green borders symbolizing courage and hope. The Password was 'Rizal.' The Katipon could graduate to the Kawal class if he had brought several members into society while Kawal could became a Bayani upon being elected as an officer of society.

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Flags of Katipunan



The original Katipunan flagA common variation of the Katipunan standard 

 Bonifacio's personal flag'Llanera's skull' was accompanied by a Musikong Bumbong in the Cry of Nueva Ecija

 Another common variation of the Katipunan standardGen. Pio del Pilar's standard

 The first official standard of the revolutionary forcesThe flag of the Biak-na-Bato republic

 

 Gen. Pio del Pilar's tricolor

 

 

 


Created by:  ELISA SORIANO

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